This article breaks down the concept and its historicity:
I have not been able to find “katholikos” in particular, however, the verse you quoted states: kath and holos(oles)/throughout all, i.e. encompassing. Now, this is applied locally to Judea, Galilee, and Samaria in the verse, but the concept is reduced by the locality, and outside of that context, is wholly universal: throughout all. There’s your answer.
This is easily viewed from the perspective of the denoting of the Roman Catholic Church versus the Catholic Church as understood, as best as possible, and outlined rather extensively from the New Testament, the Patristic writings, and even up to documents like Lumen Gentium.
The application of the concept as a label, i.e. Catholic, was something that, as I can tell, came about to denote separation from heretical ideas and true Apostolic Christianity as passed down ultimately from Christ, and is retained faithfully by the Bishop of Rome.
Fun little linguistic tidbit, the word Kath:
kata: down, against, according to
Original Word: κατά
Part of Speech: Preposition
Phonetic Spelling: (kat-ah’)
Short Definition: down from, against, according to, throughout, during
Definition: gen: against, down from, throughout, by; acc: over against, among, daily, day-by-day, each day, according to, by way of.
2596 katá (a preposition, governing two grammatical cases) – properly, “down from, i.e. from a higher to a lower plane, with special reference to the terminus (end-point)” (J. Thayer).
holos: whole, complete
Original Word: ὅλος, η, ον
Part of Speech: Adjective
Phonetic Spelling: (hol’-os)
Short Definition: all, the whole, entire
Definition: all, the whole, entire, complete.
3650 hólos (a primitive adjective and the root of the English term “whole”) – properly, wholly, where all the parts are present and working as a whole – i.e. as the total, which is greater than the mere sum of the parts. This factor is especially significant in metaphorical contexts or those focusing on the spiritual plane.
What’s interesting about ὅλος vs ὅλη is that “ὅλη” is feminine whereas ὅλος is masculine. Notice later on in Acts 15:22, and in other areas, the feminine is used, because it refers to the whole Church, which is the Bride of Christ. This usage holds true in many examples to the believer and the Church, for Christ is a non-sexual model of a Husband.
Here’s a list of all uses according to Strong’s Concordance:
Hope this helps.